American Slavery and Racism

The story of slavery and racism in America is a complicated one. Most people assume that a pre-existing racism supported the institution of slavery, but more than likely it was the other way around. As Eugene Genovese said: “Race relations did not determine the pattern of slavery in the New World; the patterns of slavery… determined race relations.”

Have you ever heard of Anthony Johnson? He was the first true slave owner in colonial America. Prior to 1655, all “slaves” in colonial America were actually indentured servants. Following the Jubilee Laws of the Old Testament, ((Leviticus 25:10. Involuntary slavery is biblically allowed (but not mandated) only in cases of slaves taken in war or slaves of restitution.)) slavery for life was illegal. Even those who were sold into slavery became indentured servants with fixed terms of service as soon as they set foot on colonial soil. Anthony Johnson was just such an indentured servant. He worked off his term of service, and eventually owned a tobacco farm of his own. In 1655, he became the first owner of the first permanent black slave in colonial America. And, by the way, Anthony Johnson was a black man.

So racism was not really the major driving factor of slavery in America. There is a reason I titled this article “American Slavery and Racism,” rather than the other way around.

Like so many things, permanent black slavery began because it was profitable. But it couldn’t have continued without justification. Enter colonialism. Colonialism assumed the African peoples needed to be subjugated and controlled, even for their own good. Drawing from polygenic models of human origin, colonial imperialists posited that the “savage” races were inferior in moral and cultural development. They needed to be “civilized.” The value of the colonial model, even in spite of its many errors and abuses, is that the peoples were considered capable of improvement, worthy of development. Savages were considered potential equals, in other words. ((This doesn’t excuse the ethnocentrism of Western imperialists or the methods they used to violently subjugate their colonies.))

Darwinism changed all of that. If “savages” were less evolved, then they were biologically fated to inferiority. No amount of civilization could fix them. Racial differences were not a matter of culture, they were a fixed matter of biology.

After slavery was firmly grounded in America along racial lines, it actually produced very many of the racial distinctions it claimed to be justified by. Think about it. For one, it relegated an entire race and their progeny to a particular class: the slave class. If you saw a black person in America after about 1700, he was almost certainly a slave. As a slave, he was likely poor, uneducated, and dependent on others for his daily bread. Being dependent on others meant that slaves didn’t have to make decisions for themselves: financial, moral, or otherwise. This state often looks very similar to just plain irresponsibility.

After many generations in this condition, black people in America began to fit very snugly into a stereotype that was actually more incidental than biological, but the average American would not have been able to make that distinction. All black people seemed to be about the same: poor, uneducated, and irresponsible. The assumption became that “blackness” made them that way. That was and is simply not true. But it certainly looked like that.

After generations under the yoke of permanent slavery, black slaves were suddenly emancipated. Most of them had little education, little to no money, no opportunities, and a huge mountain of prejudice to overcome. It is no surprise that newly emancipated slaves quickly became disillusioned with the so-called freedom they had been granted. It is also no surprise that newly defeated Southerners quickly became bitter about the newly emancipated slaves.

When former black slaves, even given what were supposedly “egalitarian” conditions, couldn’t succeed to the same extent as their white counterparts, it was assumed this was because they actually were genetically inferior. Stephen Jay Gould comments on this unintended upshot of egalitarianism:

The initial nineteenth–century meaning [of “Social Darwinism”] referred to a specific theory of class stratification with industrial societies, and particularly to the idea that there was a permanently poor underclass consisting of genetically inferior people who had precipitated down into their inevitable fate. The theory arose from a paradox of egalitarianism: as long as people remain on top of the social heap by accident of a noble name or parental wealth, and as long as members of despised castes cannot rise no matter what their talents, social stratification will not reflect intellectual merit, and brilliance will be distributed across all classes; but when true equality of opportunity is attained smart people rise and the lower classes become rigid, retaining only the intellectually incompetent.

So racial slavery can help explain why many black people had trouble succeeding for years, and even generations, after emancipation. It also explains why a racial prejudice developed among white people toward black people. What it does not explain is why that prejudice, and the apparent racial disparity of success, continues to be a factor a hundred and fifty or so years after emancipation.

Why is it that contemporary American black people are, like their enslaved ancestors, more likely than their white counterparts to be poor, uneducated, and irresponsible? ((I know there will be people who immediately recoil from such a statement. But it is unfortunately a statistical fact. Rejecting it for its political incorrectness doesn’t make it any less true.)) That is another story—a story of the shift from one kind of slavery to another. A story of a negligible biological difference becoming a huge cultural divide. The story of racism as a self-fulfilling prophecy. More on that next time.

103 responses

  1. One can only imagine how much human suffering could have been avoided had God,Jesus or even Paul, condemned slavery instead of supported it.

    • As stated before, in another article, slavery in “Bible Times” in the Jewish region, was not the same slavery we know today. It was was a form of indentured servitude. You had a debt, and paid it off through serving you the person you were indebited to. After which, you were released from the contract. Permanent slavery, according to Jewish law, was illegal.
      So no, Jesus didn’t have to comdemn the slavery you know because it was already condemned.

      • stixuits21 Really? So in Deuteronomy 20:10-14 when God commands the Israelites to go into a town & slaughter every male but they can keep woman & female children as sex slaves  was a form of “indentured servitude”? BTW, What you’re arguing for is something that Christians claim NOT to believe in… namely “moral relativism”: You’re saying that morality is not fixed, and changes as the times change.

        • First of all, the words sex and slave aren’t found in those verses. So I guess thats your own atheist interpretation.
          Second, even when your being shown facts about the Bible, such as the Jubilee Laws of the Old Testament, and how that even played into the 1600’s, you’re still trying to say that has no relevance? It was just spelled out to you in this article how slavery didn’t even truly exist in America till the 1650’s. Yet you still won’t face facts. It wasn’t slavery in the Bible, and it wasn’t slavery until then.
          And according to the man you worship (Darwin): Darwinism justified enslaving the strong members of the “savage” races and exterminating the rest.

        • stixuits21 Moses, Eleazar the priest, and all the leaders of the people went to meet them outside the camp.  But Moses was furious with all the military commanders who had returned from the battle.  “Why have you let all the women live?” he demanded.  “These are the very ones who followed Balaam’s advice and caused the people of Israel to rebel against the LORD at Mount Peor.  They are the ones who caused the plague to strike the LORD’s people.  Now kill all the boys and all the women who have slept with a man.  Only the young girls who are virgins may live; you may keep them for yourselves.Numbers 31:7-18
          When the LORD your God hands it over to you, kill every man in the town.  But you may keep for yourselves all the women, children, livestock, and other plunder.  You may enjoy the spoils of your enemies that the LORD your God has given you.Deuteronomy 20:10-14
          However, you may purchase male or female slaves from among the foreigners who live among you.  You may also purchase the children of such resident foreigners, including those who have been born in your land.  You may treat them as your property, passing them on to your children as a permanent inheritance.  You may treat your slaves like this, but the people of Israel, your relatives, must never be treated this way.  Leviticus 25:44-46 NLT

        • BobE stixuits21 Reads kind of like the Koran doesn’t it?  Fortunately civilized man has gone well beyond that point. Your president, however, is still living in those times. His daughters will have to be careful not to become part of his “honor killing” ways.

        • GrumpyOldMan stixuits21 Slavery was very common back then but that’s not the issue. How can anyone get their moral compass from a book that condones slavery is.

        • BobE GrumpyOldMan stixuits21 Well BoobiE, I know this will be difficult for you to comprehend, but you have to imagine yourself back in those times. Owning a slave back then would be the equivalent to the Amish owning a horse today.
          By the way, ever seen the Amish abuse their livestock?

        • GrumpyOldMan BobE stixuits21 And I know this is difficult for you to understand. ANY god or book that condones slavery is repulsive

      • gray man BobE Well, what about God’s words that BobE quotes? Do these words not mean what they seem to? Are they taken out of context? Did God change His mind? Please support your assertion.

  2. What’s with the deep dive into racism? Honestly, im not sure if this is meant to educate the ignorant here or to lay down a few markers that will somehow accuse liberals of promoting racism. But any how, I love the footnotes to yourself. Especially the last where you had the opportunity to cite your source for statistics and instead try to block any criticism by labeling it “political correctness”. Clever, but not effective. The issue I have is measuring education is an objective exercise, poverty is certain a numerical metric (I think I’ve seen many studies that showing income disparity). But “irresponsibility”?? How do you measure that subjective judgement? I found this definition interesting: 2. not capable of or qualified for responsibility, as due to age, circumstances, or a mental deficiency. Perhaps you need to empathize with black people. That is to say they are sensitive to racially charged language, like when Biden described Obama the senator as “articulate”. So since you did not provide your source of data, what do you mean by irresponsible? Do you mean to say what many racists say about black people: Lazy, or Fathering too many babies out of wedlock…or worse, Criminals. You see racism is a problem when one brings their “statistical facts” as you say as a means to judge someone. Rather than judge someone on observations about their behaviors, performance, or content of their character, you treat people according to facts about their race. I hope that gives you something to think about Michael Minkoff. So the next time you encounter a Mexican immigrant who struggles with the English language, you don’t prejudge her as inferior or savage.

    • So, when its proven that minorities tend to take advantage of the subsidies that are given to them, then complain and call racism when they won’t contribute? Thats not ok to judge? Im so sick of your “walk on eggshells” attitude with facts and truth talk Inspiri

    • Lets try answering a few questions to clear your thinking up. Just answer yes or no. But first, lets put out the dictionary’s defintion of race.
      race  /rās/ Noun
      A competition between runners, horses, vehicles, boats, etc., to see which is the fastest in covering a set course.
      Each of the major divisions of humankind, having distinct physical characteristics.
      Verb Compete with another or others to see who is fastest at covering a set course or achieving an objective.
      Now according to the second noun definition, white people are a race. You might not acknowledge that, but proves it right there. And then some will say, “Only hte KKK see the white people as a race.” Well I’m going with the official definition.
      Now, here are your questions:
      1. Do you think the white people are a race?
      2. Are black people racist in calling white people “racial derrogitory names?”
      3. Are those that that are black that commit crimes against white people, considered racist in the Civil Rights laws?
      If you answer yes to all these, then you have no right to judge us, for judging certain black people for their actions, ethics, and behaviors.

      • stixuits21 Yes, but, the OBozo, Eric “The Goon” Holder regime have given their blessing for Black racism.  In fact, they encourage it.  No one else has been granted that special dispensation. Everyone else must maintain political correctness. Oh, wait. The Regime also gave that permission to any Muslims, even if not Black.

    • Inspiri Howdy. I actually will cite some hard statistics in tomorrow’s article. But I was mostly talking about racist perceptions and prejudices in this article. Your assumption that I have some kind of deeply unsympathetic approach and “conservative” agenda occludes the opportunity we might otherwise have for mutually constructive dialogue. I actually want to see racism in all of its forms die. And “the deep dive” into racism is just that: an exploration. My only agenda aside from knowledge and discourse is the dismantling of prejudices. This is a difficult proposition. I hope you will bear with me with an open mind.

      • He hey heeeey. What’s up Michael? I will keep an open mind as I always do. Not to be confused with my passion to call out the insensitive, hypocritical, or outright prejudices to blacks, women, whomever. I hope you understand my point on racially charged language; I hear it referred to as “code” words. I give you LOTS of credit for exploring this subject. You can’t get anymore electrified!

      • MichaelMinkoff Inspiri Then you need to do some more research into the matter. Rather than just read the tripe put out by liberal universities, learn what slavery really was in the South. What the “War of Northern Aggression” was actually about, and it wasn’t slavery. It was money as it usually is in these things. And find out just how prejudiced those in the Northern States really were.  I believe that the last racially motivated hanging was in Galion Ohio, which, last I looked was North of the Mason-Dixon line.

        • GrumpyOldMan MichaelMinkoff Inspiri  The ” “War of Northern Aggression”?? Be honest Grumpy old man, did you make that up or did you hear it from Rand or Ron Paul?

        • GrumpyOldMan MichaelMinkoff Inspiri I agree the War Between the States wasn’t about slavery. But slavery was definitely used for emotional leverage before, during, and after the war, and many Southerners were naturally embittered about losing the war and occasionally took it out on people—notably newly emancipated slaves. But that’s not really the point of the article. Permanent racial slavery is a terrible and destructive institution. Most reasonable people in the South were looking for a way to end the institution in a way that didn’t leave a whole population of slaves destitute and optionless (which is exactly what happened in 1865, actually). The Confederate Constitution outlawed the slave trade, and more than likely slavery would have died of natural causes (especially considering the mechanization of farming practices). It still would have required a huge amount of work to get a population of slaves to the point where they were self-sufficient citizens. Anyway, your points are well-taken, but perhaps you shouldn’t knee jerk react just because the South gets ragged on a lot.

        • MichaelMinkoff GrumpyOldMan Inspiri
          “Most reasonable people in the South were looking for a way to end the institution in a way that didn’t leave a whole population of slaves destitute and optionless”??? Reasonable people in the south is an oxymoron & you statement is 100% BS

        • BobE  MichaelMinkoff Inspiri Actually BoobiE, that is what it was and it is what it is correctly called. Lincoln had his Union forces invade the South.  Then, as now, there was an arrogant over reaching, narcissistic man in the White House forcing his unconstitutional will on the people of the several states.   It was something else you probably never heard of before. It’s call “States Rights”.

        • MichaelMinkoff Inspiri What I react to is people stating the facts incorrectly.  Slavery has been used as an excuse for Blacks to do anything and everything they’ve wanted, and get away with it.  It’s over, the Zimmerman trial is over, and it’s time for some people to get past it and on with their lives.
          Every race has been enslaved by someone at one point in history or another.  Maybe the Jews should act like Blacks? Their suffering lasted a lot longer, and included being the victims of “ethnic cleansing”.  This is the 21st century, not the 18th century. It’s time to move on.

        • Why argue over trivial points. We weren’t there so it is historians place to posit. Besides, it is not even relevant to the post. I am personally grateful Lincoln invaded the South as you say, it established the precedent to for federal powers given under constitution. The same that created and dismantled DOMA

        • Inspiri No inspiri. Lincoln’s invasion established the precedent for for the Executive branch to violate the Constitution and ignore it’s limitations placed on the Federal Government!

        • GrumpyOldMan MichaelMinkoff Inspiri blacks suffering was for 300 years in this country, yes, we move on, but we are not to forget, just because you say so….

        • shamwil GrumpyOldMan MichaelMinkoff Inspiri 
          And if you were one of those blacks that were suffering you would have an argument. 
          But you weren’t, so you don’t.
          You think you are the only ones who have ever suffered in history?
          Question: Who do you think sold blacks into slavery?
          Answer: Other blacks.
          Time for blacks to grow up.

        • shamwil GrumpyOldMan MichaelMinkoff Inspiri 
          Also your “suffering” wasn’t any worse then the suffering of the American Indians. Yet, they as a whole are are in much better shape.
          During the 50’s blacks had a higher education level than whites percentage wise. Then you went left / socialist / DEMONcRAT.
          See where that got you?
          Time for blacks to accept responsibility for the mess they are in.

        • shamwil GrumpyOldMan MichaelMinkoff Inspiri Thee hundred years????  Sounds like more claims the sharks are still swimming the routes of the slave ships.
          I never said to “forget” as I would never suggest “forgetting” the holocaust. But there is remembering and then there is exploiting.

        • gray man shamwil GrumpyOldMan MichaelMinkoff Inspiri And there was the Muslim Arab that was O’Bammy’s great grandfather. He was making money off the slave trade too.

  3. A black kid asks his mother, “Mama, what’s a  Democracy?”  
    “Well, son, that’s when white folks work every day so we can get all our benefits, you knows like free cell        phones for each family member, rent subsidy, food stamps, WIC, free healthcare, utility subsidy, & the list goes on & on, you knows”.”But mama, don’t the white people get peeved off about that? “Sure they do, that’s called racism!”

    • I love to see overt racist comments on full display. It’s like modern art, all offensive works require study. Listen, while some abuse the system, our social safety net is supported by all but the most extreme of republicans. Have you considered that white people are the largest recipients of benefits you speak of? I know, I know…whites are largest in population. But what do you say about the 38% that are white? Tell me the joke from a white person’s perspective.

      • Truth hurts doesn’t it? Sorry we aren’t worried about hurting peoples feelings with the truth. Kinda like how I hate seeing kids failing and school and they are told its ok, and pass them anyways (no they aren’t black, white kids are treated like that too). Or, how about no more score keeping in sports for kids? Trophies for everyone! Everyone is a winner!

        • stixuits21 I was referring to ” A black kid asks his mother” & wondering if that was part of Rand Paul’s speech at Howard University.

        • BobE stixuits21 Boobie, crawl back up your a$$ and disappear for a month or two. You’re really making yourself look like a TOTAL idiot.

        • BobE GrumpyOldMan stixuits21 If you are “lucky,” you can grow up to be likegrumpyoldman..he rocks…you suck.

        • BobE GrumpyOldMan stixuits21 Not to worry BoobiE. You will never “grow up”. You will be little Peter Pansy forever. And “stupid” isn’t a race so pointing out all your flaws is not being “racist”.

  4. You ask why are some people more successful than others?  That definition of success is “The harder I work, the more successful I become.”  Everyone, with or without an education, can work at something.  Our government has been very generous to supply education.

    • JeanniePTL Our “government” has been very generous in making sure the poor and disadvantaged every have the basic tools necessary to move out of poverty!  Black slaves were not “allowed” to learn to read and write. Black children are still not allowed to learn to read and write. The “government” makes sure that the opportunities that exist are in drug dealing, running drugs and money for the gangs, and that they can only “learn” in government schools, which are the worst that have ever been established. To get to a better school, they have to move out of the city into the burbs. White, Black or Hispanic.  
      But none of them can do that because the “govmnt” keeps the “assistance” centers downtown. They keep the food banks and other handouts downtown. They (Democrats) rig the game so there is no opportunity break the chain of welfare dependency because welfare dependency equals keeping the poor needy and in check.  And if they want the handouts to continue, they have to vote for the Demon-craps. 
      Inner cities are very similar to the Indian Reservations.The “undesirable and unwashed” must be confined and kept out of sight of most Americans.  Yeah, lets hear it for our “great government” employees!  Including the Clown-In-Chief, OBozo. Member in good standing of the Muslim Brotherhood. 
      Government employees are like North Korean rockets. They won’t work and you can’t fire them.

      • It just never ends. These same red states that feed off the government trough in which the blue states provide the feed never stop talking about free loaders when they’re the biggest ones!

        • BobE You mean like Detroit?  BoobiE your ignorance and stupidity knows no bounds. And the great state of disinformation KalEfornia won’t be far behind Detroit.  Count on it. Look forward to it. I know I do.

        • Lol I was just about to ask the same thing. Detroit is the example of liberal run government. Of course learning from mistakes isn’t something Democrats do well.

        • GrumpyOldMan BobE Do you dipshits in the south even understand facts? For every $1 red states send to Washington, Washington sends back MORE then $1! For every $1 blue states send to Washington, Washington sends back LESS then $1. Red States are the welfare queens feeding off the government trough in which blue states provide the feed!

        • BobE, it appears that the Blue States and Cities are the ones filing for bankruptcy not the Red states. The Blue States are the ones that put Raciest and their followers in to office. You also have to remember that it was the democratic party that fought to keep slavery, and fought to keep Blacks from voting. The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. is rolling over in his grave knowing his people vote democrat.

        • Johnnysw BobE C’mon, not yet another dipshit that wants to argue that the dems wanted slavery. It’s was conservative Christians living in the south that were once called dems but are now in the gop & have been for years. If it wasn’t for the blue states subsidizing the red states the red states would collapse

        • Johnnysw BobE I guess you haven’t been here long enough to know that BoobiE isn’t interested in facts yet.  Other than for entertainment value, best just to ignore him.

      • GrumpyOldManbecause the “govmnt” keeps the “assistance” centers downtown.
        That is utter bull manure, there are aid offices throughout the various counties in America and based of the county’s population you fool. I drive by a suburban FSSA ,which is what Indiana calls it’s welfare offices, everyday on my way to drop my daughter at college. Shows you know nothing of what you speak.

  5. How is it that MOST of the white settlers that came over from Europe were also SLAVES,, or indentured servants,,
    same thing.
    How is it that white indentured servants/slaves progressed into being productive contributing citizens that pay taxes and raise their own children using their own money,,
    and the black indentured servants are STILL lower than ever before ?? 
    even AFTER the many black leaders that suffered and died in order to give their black children and grandchildren the many many many opportunities that are available today ?
    MKL Jr would roll over in his grave today if he looked down and saw how the black people of today have Pi55ed all that away for crumbs of welfare hand-outs to be able to not have to work,,, ever.
    How would he feel to see that almost 80+% of all black children either end up in prison or dead in drug shootouts,, and the vast majority of women are single mothers to 4-5+ children that also end up with VERY little chance of ever having a shot at anything other than welfare and drugs ?

    • pudbertsavannahga One of my relatives was indentured servant, I think to pay for her passage.  She was a dressmaker and went from house to house.  I do not know how long, but I think seven years.  I do know that all the women from her line could sew quite well (not me, I am not patient enough).  My grandfather born on the boat from Germany, his father left his mother and grandpa worked at age 10 feeding cattle.  He went to the 4th grade.  He became an “engineer” in a brewery and ran it at night.  They (grandmother and father) took in people who needed help, even adopting two, and had meals for soldiers no matter what.

      • texasjo pudbertsavannahga  Those “indentured servants” that came from Africa didn’t even have to pay for ride over on those luxurious “indentured servant” ships that brought them! So, really they have been “free loading” since they left.

        • texasjo BobE pudbertsavannahga Those  luxurious “indentured servant” ships were built & owned by European Christians that ran the “indentured servant” trade.

        • BobE texasjo pudbertsavannahga Not luxurious, did you ever see a replication of those ships (in the Smithsonian)…they barely made it alive, stuffed together.

        • texasjo BobE pudbertsavannahga They had to be by the time they got over here. After offloading so many along the way that “the sharks are still following the route today” and all the islands that have flipped over and sunk from the weight of too many slaves that escaped in route?  And if you believe what I just said, you too can be a Congressman.  We only elect the very brightest among us. Hey BoobiE! Wanna live in Washington? Be another Pirate of the Potomac? You could be overqualified but you could try.  When you grow up that is.

        • texasjo BobE pudbertsavannahga being chained together below deck & having to defecate & vomit all over each was just part of the ‘fun” for the “indentured servants” that if they survived were torn apart from their family & loved ones & sold to their loving “indentured servant” masters!

        • BobE texasjo pudbertsavannahga Isn’t it nice that our forefathers fought for their freedom?  The ones who stayed in Africa are not nearly as well off.  All peoples have bad times in history.  The potato famine, you just starved…that is certainly not a nice way to go.

        • texasjo BobE pudbertsavannahga  It’s real sad that those “indentured servants” don’t thank us from taking them against their will, separating them from their loved ones & owning them like property. They really seem ungrateful for all the kindness we’ve showed them.

        • texasjo BobE pudbertsavannahga BoobiE isn’t a potato Texasjo. He’s a half baked potato head. One of the plastic ones that changes appearance each time you take him out of the box to play with him.

        • BobE texasjo pudbertsavannahga Now I feel really bad BoobiE! I never believed any of them were still alive!  Please find one for me so I can make personal amends. Repatriate them to their country and reunite them with their loved ones.  You are so much more sensitive than the rest of us BoobiE.

        • BobE texasjo pudbertsavannahga Wait! Never mind. I just went on and found out none of my ancestors were in America during the slave era.  Any of them that are still alive can find their own damn way back!

        • texasjo So that makes what difference? None! They still ended up the possessions of white men and quite often brutally treated by our forefathers. It’s also wrong to say “Their own people”. Africa was an is full of tribalism (much like today’s America is turning into, trines of conservatives, tribes of liberals, green party tribes etc) they were the spoils of inter tribal wars and then sold so it wasn’t by their own people. Skin color has nothing to do with it, self separating groups can exist an still be the same race as I pointed out just a moment ago in parentheses.

  6. This “article” gave me the best laugh I’ve had all day!  The South became embittered?  You have to be joking. The residents in the Northern States have always been more more exclusive to blacks than the South ever was.  This whole story is a joke. One that is too long and wastes too much computer bandwidth!

    • GrumpyOldMan  Yeah I remember how Maine turned high pressure fire fighting hoses on those blacks, you’re so right!!

    • Huh? Did you just buy your first dictionary today?!? Cause we here in da US use a little thing called grammar to put words together to form sentences.

      • Inspiri Notice the cap lock screaming? Nothing that person posts is likely to make any sense, as they say at car wrecks, move along nothing to see here folks just move along……lol

  7. You forgot to add that Anthony Johnson, the first slave owner, owned his slave in Massachusetts, which at the time of the Revolution had a population that was roughly 5% black slaves. Many of the blacks in the North today are the descendants of Northern slaves. New York did not free the last of its slaves until the 1830s. It took even longer to free the ones in New Jersey.

  8. What has got to be completely obvious is that the polarization of this country is irreconcilable. On one hand you have the blue states mainly in the east & west coast along with industrial northeast that believe in science, logic, reason. They value education, are not threatened by diversity or progress & who subsidies the red states that are primarily in the south where superstitious people reject science, look down upon education & have the worst education system in the country along with the most uneducated people that are easily lead to vote against their own interests because they aren’t bright enough to get information other then right wing sources & reject ANY evidence that goes against their point of view simply because they don’t have an open mind or the intelligence to even consider another point of view. History shows us that the smart always rule the stupid so the GOP is not much a threat in a general election but can do a great deal of damage because their are a lot on red states

    • BobE Well lets see if one of those “red” states (always with the color, yet everyone else is a racist but you) can analyze this comment. Correct me anywhere I’m wrong please.  
      You are from one of the Blue states.  You are constantly in everyone’s face denigrating them, their beliefs, and oh yes, name calling.  You oppose anyone having an opinion that differs from yours. You blah blah, blah with nothing to back you up nor any references that would back you up.  That pretty well cover it?
      Now your really expect someone to listen to the idiotic post you just put on here about how “tolerant” the people are who live in blue states?  Yep, and it’s man made global WARMING too. Until it’s man made global cooling again.  If brains were gun powder, you couldn’t blow your own nose BoobiE.

      • GrumpyOldMan BobE You’re wrong about BobE on several fronts, First he just has a differing opinion and presents it. He does’t denigrate until he’s been denigrated in most instances, but it may seem otherwise because quite often the individual he’s engaging he’s already come across and uses a pre-emptive strike since he knows they’ll denigrate. He often sites link to support his claims or mentions his source material when it’s not opinion.
        His grammar could use some touching up but I think many of his mistakes come from stream of consciousness and he’s rather stay in the thought than worry about small typo or punctuation than lose the thought.
        Finally I don’t know why you eve brought up Global warming in that post but for the record the vast majority of accredited Scientists (over 90%) who have expertise in the field say it’s real, they are certainly enough observational signals to give credence to the theory and many of the so called scientists who put up counter arguments are paid schills who are making fistfuls of money because they’re hired by industry to keep the appearance of disagreement when in fact there’s very little among he true experts in the field

        • The real Smart Guy GrumpyOldMan BobE”Finally I don’t know why you eve brought up Global warming in that post but for the record the vast majority of accredited Scientists (over 90%) who have expertise in the field say it’s real, they are certainly enough observational signals to give credence to the theory and many of the so called scientists who put up counter arguments are paid schills who are making fistfuls of money because they’re hired by industry to keep the appearance of disagreement when in fact there’s very little among he true experts in the field”
          The problem comes from the claim that it is “man-made”. 
          That was the first claim used to try controlling the “fossil fuel” use.
          Everyone with half a brain knew that was false for the simple reason the planet has been both hotter and colder since long before man had any thing to do with it.
          The bad science comes in when the claims of carbon being “bad”, and man having anything to do with it.

        • The real Smart Guy GrumpyOldMan BobE “and many of the so called scientists who put up counter arguments are paid schills who are making fistfuls of money ”
          also: nonsense

        • The real Smart Guy GrumpyOldMan BobE Well real “smart guy”, you really are not very smart are you. Apparently you’ve never read BoobiE’s posts, or, as indicated here, your reading and comprehension skills are non existent. 
          The “global warming” was brought up because it is a “man made hoax” that liberal leftists, which I gather you are one of these, use as a tool to get attention and divert wealth from other areas where it wold be better used. The 90% is another myth of the leftist communist in an effort to gain legitimacy where none is deserved.  Most REAL scientists attempt to debunk this and the hero of this movement, one Al Gore, can not debate his myths with real scientists and refuses to try because he would expose himself as the total fool that he is.
          So if you wish to include yourself within the group of leftist fools, you are on the right track.

        • gray man The real Smart Guy GrumpyOldMan BobE Gray man, it’s not just fossil fuel.  It progressed from that to being every time you exhale you contribute to man made global warming also.  I could maybe agree with that if they would just shut up and quit breathing!

        • GrumpyOldMan The real Smart Guy BobE Those who believe “global warming,” have rarely investigated it, especially from various sources.  We have too many of these sheep who vote.

        • KeithClark1 texasjo GrumpyOldMan The real Smart Guy BobE Did you see what happened in Stinkin-atti Ohio last week? A poll workers got 5 years for casting six votes that they knew about?  Now, lets see if we can connect some dots.  Poll worker, Black. Who these votes were cast for, OBozo.  Hmmm. Anyone think she would have risked this had the candidate been White???  I don’t think so.

        • and Yet Republican Colin Small who was caught red handed destroying Democrats voter registration in Virginia does no time. Connect some dots, if you’re white and republican you can cheat and deny registered voters their right to vote but if you’re black and cheat you go to jail, yeah our system is working well, If you’re white and republican

        • The real Smart Guy and yet black panther members who stood right at the voting booths intimidating and threatening white voters walked away scott free. your post is nonsense,  not real smart … guy
          DEMONcRATS the party of the KKK.

        • gray man That sir is a flat out lie, First they were outside of the building, not “right at the voting booth” secondly it was a predominately black precinct in Philadelphia, and finally not one person filed a complaint, not one! The one Panther was a certified poll watcher genius. The other was told to leave by police at 10:00 because he was dressed in Paramilitary clothing and did have a baton, but he left without incident.
          I see in your world if two black men congregate that’s intimidation.
          The threatened no one unless you see a black man as a threat for being black. somehow I have the sneaking suspicion that’s exactly how you see the world, you’re far more KKK with that thinking than any Democrat you republi-CON’s. Conning people seems to be the way of your movement. Building mountains from molehills all the while ignoring the voter suppression efforts of your own party. Disgusting. Try taking a week off from FOX news and AM talk radio, you brain will appreciate the break from the brainwashing.

        • The real Smart Guy gray man Funny how your story doesn’t line up with any of the facts. There were complaints and you also apparently believe that since it was in a “Black precinct in Philadelphia” that everyone was going to vote for OBozo anyway so no harm no foul.
          It may surprise you that there are people of the Black race that are able to think for themselves, and don’t just vote because their skin color happens to match that of the candidate.  Not very many, I’ll grant you, but there are some.

        • The real Smart Guy gray man well, you just proved yourself an ignoramus. Thanks for winning my argument for me.

        • The real Smart Guy gray man Genius, someone out side the building IS at the voting booth. Genius, someone dressed in paramilitary gear and waving a baton around IS intimidating someone. Genius, if there were no complaints how come the cops showed up?Why did the cops ask him to leave if he wasn’t intimidating people? Answer those questions genius.

  9. Consider this, blacks from the West Indies out preform blacks from other areas in the same way whites from blue states out preform whites from red states.

    • BobE Except that whites from the blue states do not outperform whites from the red states. Quite the opposite in fact.

  10. The minorities insist on Obamacare… and think that they have a right to medical services in this country.  Therefore, by demanding the sevices for free, they are engaging in slavery.  They are enslaving the doctors for their services as they demand.  You can say the same thing for food stamps and other welfare.  It is not that they do not believe in slavery…

  11. Minorities insist on Affordable Care Act because they are being promised that it will be cheaper than buying it on your own (I am talking about the portion of minorities that fall at or below middle income, and not insured by employer). They believe their legislatures and they don’t believe Republicans…in fact, deliberately misleading them because GOP obstructs Obama at every turn. That is reality. Why?
    As far as the portion of minorities who want it for free, it has been free since 1965 for those who qualify. One good thing is affordable care act does not lower entry requirements. Based on ignorance displayed by last comment, I don’t believe anyone can conclude that affordable health care is tantamount to slavery. For those who take pleasure in disparaging blacks/minorities, then slavery it is!

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