ObamaCare Wouldn’t Exist in the Confederacy

And it’s not just because Obama is black. Man, you people really need to stop always making this about race. What do you mean you people? AHHHH. Anyway. Before I get into this, I must, for the sake of the nuance-challenged, declare unequivocally that I oppose slavery (especially of the civil kind) and that I am not a racist. For the sake of this article, I am not even considering the intersection of Obama’s race and stereotypical Old South prejudices. Now, on to issues we can all disagree on… (Warning: This article is really long and boring… And it has only one picture… a flag, of all things… which most people will, incorrectly, think is the colonial Stars and Bars. Hint: It’s not.) (Spoiler Alert: The South lost.)

Most people have not read the Confederate Constitution. It is a fascinating document as much for its similarities to the original Constitution as for its dissimilarities. Consider a few of the innovations (check out The Confederate Constitution of 1861 by Marshall DeRosa if you want a more thorough study of the subject):

1) “Almighty God” was specifically called upon in the Preamble for “favor and guidance.”

2) Presidents were limited absolutely to one term of six years. (No lame duck madness.)

3) The “General Welfare Clause” was removed. (Internal improvements were strictly a state affair.)

4) Federal and Judicial officers were impeachable by two-thirds of the state legislature in their state of residence.

5) Every law passed by Congress could relate to only one subject, which subject had to be labeled candidly in the title. (No riders allowed.)

6) All bills by Congress to appropriate money had to specify an exact amount, and absolutely no more than that could be drawn. (No trojan horse bills.)

7) A Constitutional Convention for amending the Constitution could be convened if three states (rather than two-thirds of the states) requested it. Further, the national Congress had no vote concerning Constitutional Amendments.

Further, even though a Confederate Supreme Court was authorized by the Confederate Constitution, the enacting legislation for establishing one was never passed in spite of the great “need” for one cited by many of its supporters. State Supreme Courts were the highest courts in the Confederacy. This meant that the job of interpreting the constitutionality of Federal laws was effectively left in the hands of the individual states.

The Confederate Congress would not have passed ObamaCare because:

1) It is a Federal injunction for internal improvements—not allowed.

2) It relates to more than one subject (At 2,700 pages… you think?).

3) It does not adequately specify exact amounts to be appropriated for what purposes.

Further, the national Supreme Court would have no say in its constitutionality. State Supreme Courts could strike it down even if it were passed by Congress. And federal officials could be impeached and removed by state legislatures if such agents were to try to force citizens to abide by it.

Lord Acton, the man most people know for his famous quote (“Power corrupts, absolute power corrupts absolutely.”), was an astute observer of the Civil War (or War Between the States or War of Southern Independence or whatever… a dung pile by any other name…). Like most educated Brits, he wanted the South to win. But his reasons were not exclusive rights to cheap cotton or the fact that the South had preserved more of the cultural vestiges of its mother country. Rather, Acton believed that the South was the last chance America had to correct the political abuses that had crept into the American Republic:

These were the political ideas of the Confederacy, and they justify me, I think, in saying that history can show no instance of so great an effort made by republicans to remedy the faults of that form of government. . . .

The spurious liberty of the United States is twice cursed, for it deceives those whom it attracts and those whom it repels. By exhibiting the spectacle of a people claiming to be free, but whose love of freedom means hatred of inequality, jealousy of limitations to power, and reliance on the state as an instrument to mould as well as to control society, it calls on its admirers to hate aristocracy and teaches its adversaries to fear the people. The North has used the doctrines of democracy to destroy self-government. The South applied the principle of conditional federation to cure the evils and to correct the errors of a false interpretation of democracy.

The South had many flaws (as Acton points out in this very essay). But its Constitution (which explicitly outlawed the slave trade, by the way… which meant the Southern institution of slavery was undergoing a planned obsolescence… just saying) may have been one of the last chances America had to address the problems of the original Constitution in a rigorous and sweeping way—to preclude the even more egregious abuses we are suffering under now. In other words, America lost the Civil War.

0 responses

  1. Southern states saw there were parts of the US Constitution that could and would be circumvented. Southerners have been seen as raciest and everyone supported slavery. Not so. If you study history and the leaders and most of the population was ahead of the country in abolishing slavery. Some of the Confederate constitution if adapted into the US Constitution would be a real improvement. It would effect the courts, politicians and lawyers. Lawyers run and control our country, therefore it ant gonna happen.

  2. I really don’t get your point. Are you advocating a Confederacy? We should abolish our Constitution and adopt the Conferate one. We should re-instate slavery and make all liberals slaves. That sounds like one the tea party could support. You guys get crazier everyday. Go do some outdoor work or exercise. REally

    • You either didn’t read or cannot understand – slavery was being outlawed as it was being written. That constitution has many points worthy of consideration. Especially, the six year term with no re-election. Imagine if none of these people sent most of their term working instead of trying to get re-elected.

    • Typical groat trash like those in Congress you support who passed 0bamanationhelltchcare without reading it!

    • The Confederate Constitution outlawed slavery—something that Lincoln pledged not to do. His only concern was the UNION, not slavery. And, it would be nice if you actually read the whole article before sputtering.

      • Did you know Lincoln was against slavery but he did not want them here, He spoke in public and paperrs that he encouraged Black to go to mexico and start their own country(go look it up), hints War cover good old abe wasn’t so good!

        • You’re so right. Lincoln took a sledge hammer to states rights. One of the reasons that Britain and France backed the South in the beginning is because they understood that our Constitution clearly allows—no encourages—secession when and if the states suffer from over-burdensome taxes and misrepresentation. What the South did was constitutional. Declaring war on the South was unconstitutional. Considering the fact that Britain outlawed the slave trade through the efforts of William Wilberforce without a single death, proved it could be done without war. Lincoln has the blood of a million Americans on his hands and brought in 100 years of enmity between the races.

      • illegal means they should go to jail and then make them work their sentence off building the border fence and then send them back home.

      • Nice! You gotta have some fun with these folks! 🙂 Thank you for the article. I am a Christian man of black ancestry from the West Coast (Left Coast) and the propagandized version of Southern history we often get in government indoctrination camps (aka public schools) is far from reality. A good book to read that provides a lot of other good books to read on this subject is “The politically incorrect guide to The South (and why it will rise again)” by Clint Johnson. Truth is often stranger than fiction and when you read some of these primary sources you start to realize how much “mis-education” we have been fed on a variety of subjects all because of who controls the halls of academia these days.

    • No one is saying we should abolish our Consitution or re-instate slavery or make anyone a slave. It is true the South did have a better Constituion than the one we now have. Why do people like you always attribute slavery to the South?
      Did you know that Islamic countries were in the slave trade business centuries before the Europeans and continued to buy and sell slaves long after America outlawed slavery, and that some Muslim countries still engage in slavery? Did you know that slavery was introduced first in the North; and that only 20% of southerners owned slaves, and that some slave owners were free blacks? That in 1741 one fifth of New Youk’s population were slaves; That the north continued to perpetuate slavery during and after the so-called Civil War? That no northern state ever actually wrote an enamcipation law but set their slaves free by the gradual process of manumission? That blacks in the north did not have equality with whites, and northern states continued to legislate laws up until the 1850’s to prevent blacks from migrating to their states ? That Lincoln, before he was president, wanted Congress to pass a law that made slavery perpetual in the slave states, and stated in a campaign speech that he did not belive the federal govenment had any right to interfere in the issue of slavery? That he wanted to send all blacks back to Africa?
      You need to read the books ” The Real Lincoln” and “How the North Promoted, Prolonged, and Profited from Slavery”. .

  3. Could we clarify, Obama is not White, nor Black, but a Mulatto who leans to the Black Race. Other than that, he’s just like any other Communist, Fraud, Impostor and Closet Muslim, you’d find on any street corner of America.

    • Minor correction: Obama is not white or black. Obama’s ancestry is primarily Arab. And yes, he is a Muslim—born, raised and educated.

    • For everyone that has mentioned this. Yes. You are technically right. So then I am not white either. I have Cherokee blood in me. And no one is anything purely. Most all of us had some kind of inter-racial mixing go on at some point in our ancestral line, including most of the people that none of you would have a problem calling “black.” I just go with what people call themselves. Don’t really care to compartmentalize people’s blood out into exact racial ratios, weigh them out with a scale and make a holy pronouncement. Does this matter, by the way? We’ve just made this article about exactly what I really don’t care to argue about.

      • This was brought up I assume, because the vast majority of black Americans voted for him because they perceived him as “black”. Bringing up the fact that
        he is in fact less negroid than white or Arab undermines their so-called logic based on blinders.

    • Leans to black race when it is absolutely necessary to crank the race and then he goes and talk to them like the are complete idiots. He never talk to them about policy. He sings and dance for them and tell whoopers. The ones that follow him are morons. What ever he tells them, no one on this earth can tell them he lied, they will fight if need be for this lying fraud. Sad. You should listen to some of these morons call in on a talk show. They sound like bumbling fools, they can not tell the lie that has been told them by the fraud, so they just get off into, ” You’ll don’t like him cause he black” That is the only reason they like him because they think he is black, nothing more because they don’t know how or why we have government. The think Washington DC is the Government.

  4. I always thought that the north would have been better off economically and culturaly without the Confederate states.Liancold did not the North any favors. To this day, the northern and western states tax money goes into the former Confederate states in the form of welfare and other federal spending at much higher rate than any other states. If Texas with its oil money is taken out of the south, it would have the standard of lilving of Mexico wihtout the north. The biggest contribution the south has made to the US is volunteer soldiers to the unnecessary wars, like Vietnam and Iraq wars. I don’t think that the Confederacy would have participated in WW II with their KKK mentality.

    • Wow samtman, you really don’t know anything about history do you? The KKK was very strong in the north in the early 20th century. Most of the south is growing today at rates which exceed the “rust belt”. Those southern states that do not prosper fail to do so because a large section of their population has no incentive to better themselves, being victims of the welfare/social programs “given” to them by the Federal government. If you deduct that portion of the southern population which has opted out of the American system, giving themselves and their descendents over to welfare and failure, then the remainder of the south is doing quite well, thank you.

      • Not to mention that most of the Federal spending samtman is bemoaning was put in place *during Reconstruction* and impressed on the Southern states by their “conquerors.” There is a reason the North did not let the South secede. And it wasn’t because the North didn’t understand the real nature of the national climate. It’s because they needed Southern raw goods to furnish their finishing factories and they relied on the South as a market for their finished products. The North, at this time, couldn’t compete with the British in a one-to-one comparison of price and quality, so they were levying Federal tariffs on imported finished goods to level the playing field (forcing the South to pay higher prices for inferior quality finished goods that their tariff-free interstate exports had made possible in the first place). The history of the Civil War and Reconstruction is so much bigger than we’ve been taught. We could learn a good bit from primary sources. Too bad we don’t read them anymore. For that matter, too bad we don’t read much of anything anymore.

      • Also the North took everything they could money,supplies,ships,cotton,food,gold and silver,and what they could not take they burned to the ground they also rapped the wemen and children,Just like in kuwait !

    • if you go look you will find out the north wanted the souths money and land to put it up for collatral and slavery was the cover for war like todays oil war cover-ups the north screwed our freedom sell outs to other countries for money, Texas not only has Oil It has lots of Coal they closed up the coal mine when they hit oil,and the largest undeground cavern of fresh water in US,and one of the largest natural gas depostits in US,and Texas rangers(police)and Texas national Guard.That’s why Gov.Rick helped with the tea party and wanted Texas to pull out of US and be the Republic of Texas, Texas could more then support it’s self.

    • To samtman: You should not attempt to get into a discussion that you apparently know nothing about. You are really ignorant of the facts.

  5. THE SOUTHERN STATES SHOULD BREAK AWAY FROM THE CORRUPT COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT TO FORM A TRUE CONSERVATIVE CONSTITUTION GOVERNMENT & DRILL FOR OIL IN EVERY SOUTHERN STATES & DRILL FOR COAL & NATURAL GAS TO MAKE THOSE STATES RICH & SECURE & LOWER THE COST OF GAS, ELECTRIC, NATURAL GAS TO POWER CARS, HOMES, BUSINESSES AT A LOWER RATE TO BRING THE COST DOWN ON LIVING EXPENSES FOR ALL SOUTHERN STATES AMERICANS. BARRED, BANNED THE CORRUPT GOVERNMENT TO IGNORE & DISREGARD ANY UNCONSTITUTIONAL LAW TO REDUCED HEALTH CARE COST INCLUDING HEALTHCRAE INSURANCE. THROW OUT MUSLIM, LAZY WELFARE PEOPLE STRIPPING THEM OOF THE BENEFITS TO LIVE IN THE NORTHER STATES

      • … and all the other undesirables, like Jews and Mexicans and Asians and Latins and Native Indians and East Europeans and East Indians and Middle Easterners and North Africans and Hindus and Egyptians and anyone who’s the wrong skin color or the wrong religion or the wrong social status or the wrong philosophy or the wrong economic class or the wrong educational level or the wrong political conviction or the wrong age or the wrong gender.. After all, Amerika is just for us perfectly tolerant and right-minded people, isn’t that right?

        • Only if they also happen to be communist / socialist / marxist / leftist / progressive /sharia supporters / fascists or of some other anti-individual liberty, anti-Constitutional mind-set.
          Why is it so difficult for those of any of the myriad leftists groups to be able to do the hard thinking to look deeper than the the surface of any issue or person? Why do you insist upon only looking at the color of a person in any issue?

    • Do you really think the oligarchs, who own the Federal Reserve Bank, would tolerate such a thing? The UN blue helmets will be all over the no longer United States of America before they would ever permit it and they’d exterminate however many people they deem necessary to keep the game going.

  6. if the military is involved with the N.W.O. take-over,,the weapons employed upon the citizens will be unlike anything your average,,joe civilian,,could ever imagine! this crap is truly frightning even,for an old vet like me!

    • Preparing for drones below 400 feet at this time in SE Colorado–Here is a small section of the United States Government Accountability Office report of Unmanned Aircraft Systems use at this time. GAO-12-889T Unmanned Aircraft Systems Gerald L. Dillingham, Ph. D
      Current uses of U
      as are limited and include law enforecment, monitoring or fighting forest fires, border security, weather research and scientific data colledtion. UAS have a wide-range of potentiol uses, including commercial uses such as pipeline, utility, and FARM FENCE INSPECTIONS: vehicular traffic monitoring; real estate and construction site photography; relaying telecommunication signals; and crop dusting. FAA’s long range goal is to permit, to the greatest extent possible, routine UAS operations in the national airspace system while ensuring safety. Using UAS for commercial purposes is not currently allowed in the national airspace. As the list of potential uses for UAS grows, so do the concerns about how they will affect existing military and non-military aviation as well as concerns about how they might be used.
      Then it goes on to say how it can be used for law enforcement, etc, etc. They can be armed and used against the citizens who may not agree with the Communistic beliefs of the government. Copies of GAO documents can be obtained at (www.gao.gov) The daily reports are posted daily. I strongly anyone who values their freedom go there every day and read up on what they are planning.

      • thanks for the “eye” opener. It is not all that surprising of the widespread use of these vehicles.  I am also STRONGLY against the usage of  cameras to SPY on everyone.   Just driving along can put you in jeapordy of  having your license tag photographed, sent to an investigative agency and a report returned all without your knowledge or consent !  It can also check your speed and cause you to be cited for speeding without  your ever being aware  you were photographed or “scanned”.  BIG BROTHER is all to prevalent!!   Legitimate usage by businesses to protect property and life and limb.  all other useage should be considered an invasion of privacy.

  7. They had it right, the North, wrong.
    The “War of Secession” was NEVER about slavery as the schools teach and the Democrats push, it was ALWAYS about the North’s abuse of the Constitution and the South’s insistence on State’s Rights as written in the Constitution. Thus it was ALWAYS about “State’s Rights”.
    And if the ’12 election does not create a fully Republican power base in the Presidency and Congress (or at least a veto-proof Congress) that fully repeals “Obamacared” in it’s entierty, their may well be another exercise of Right of Secession, this time by a LOT more States. Furthermore, a passage of a Constitutional Amendment must be initiated so as to prevent the Presidential and Congressional abuses of the 2008-2010 era, and the blatant abuses of power of the current Senate Majority Leader, Harry Reid.

    • Yup… they actually never had slavery in the South… all that there talk about it is jest part of some damn yankee scheming to get Commies in the president’s office… truth be told, the South was only trying to get the country back on the right path and slavery was just local economy measure, yup,it warn’t never the reason for the War of Sucksession, yup indeedy.

        • Most of the other Founding Fathers felt, “that the enslavement of the African was in violation of the laws of nature; that it was wrong in principle, socially, morally, and politically….,”
          Alexander H. Stephens, who served as vice president of the Confederacy said. “”Our new government is founded upon exactly the opposite idea. Its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery subordination to the superior race is his natural and normal condition. This, our new government, is the first, in the history of the world, based upon this great physical, philosophical, and moral truth.”

          “The new (Confederate) constitution has put at rest, forever, all the agitating questions relating to our peculiar institution — African slavery as it exists amongst us — the proper status of the Negro in our form of civilization,” Stephens said in a famous speech in Savannah in 1861. “This was the immediate cause of the late rupture and present revolution.”

          What else ya got? Pizzed Off? Noni?

          • No. That is NOT the point. Pizzed off said, “The “War of Secession” was NEVER about slavery as the schools teach and the Democrats push” when, in point of fact, it WAS. Then YOU told fred, “Shallow imbecile, try reading history books not just comic books.” Practice what you preach. Know that of which you speak. DUH!

          • AS THE SCHOOLS TEACH… They fail to tackle the myriad causes that errupted to cause the war, like the friction between an agrarian society and an industrial one that could not have survived if the South had succeeded in divesting itself from the North. Schools and Dems harp on a dumbed-down, oversimplified version. READING FOR COMPREHENSION courses could help you… DUH.

          • His assertion was that, “The “War of Secession” was NEVER about slavery as the schools teach and the Democrats push” when, in point of fact, it WAS. He never said ANYTHING about the lesser underlying causes that you mentioned. DUH.

    • what rights do states have? I know about responsibilities and state sovereignty but rights? enlighten us all?

      • Let me see, what about the unenemerated rights of the Ninth Amendment:
        “The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.”

        Or the right of reserved powers claimed in the Tenth Amendment of the Constitution?

        “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people”

        Don’t stay under the rock too long or you will find yourself  in slavery.

  8. One thing Obamacare has taught us, and that we still have plenty of time to do something about, is to impeach and criminally charge any legislator who signs his/her name to ANY legislation which he/she hasn’t read fully and debated/discussed any part or parcel they don’t fully understand as to it’s intent. That way, the next time Pelosi tries to pass a law so she can be bothered to read it, we can put her head on a pike outside the Congress, as a reminder to all who enter there…Any legislator who tries to pass a law they haven’t read is a traitor and should be shot.

    • Typical liberal reply. I think if by chance a liberal went to heaven, they would find fault! But to each his/her own!

  9. The South is home to me and always will be – Southerners speak with conviction, courage, and their handshakes still mean something – God Bless.

  10. I detest any form of slavery, yet this article contains wisdom and truth. The current government has become a monster from Hell. The Founding Fathers would have felt betrayed by their descendents. It is time to focus this country on it’s core beliefs and that of the Creator who granted them all.

    • Yup… after all there’s actually some good stuff that the Nazis did, isn’t that right? They also had wisdom and truth, right? We can look back and convince ourselves that the Confederacy was never, never really interested in perpetuating slavery, right? And the Holocaust never really happened because we didn’t really see it, right?

    • I agree 100% with Julian and as for Marxist fred f……..That War is over, another one is coming…………..

  11. The South will never be able to gain its independence, for two reasons. First, there are too many carpetbaggers, with their unsouthern (ie, yankee) ways of thinking, now living there. Second, there are too many southerners, particularly poorer ones (both white and black), who are dependent upon the largess of the Federal government (welfare, food stamps, ADC, etc), and would oppose any effort to take that away.

  12. Obama wouldn’t exist in the Confederacy. He would have been hung in the public square with his first unconstitutional executive order. Slavery was legal back then–it is not now and he is trying to put us all into a slavery mode with his assinine obama no care.

  13. You forgot one crucial item. The Confederate Constitution banned the importation of African slaves-except- from the lilly white United States-. To this day, there is no such amendment or clause in the US Constitution. It is perfectly legal to import slaves into the United States except it is illegal to retain them…………. America should be ashamed of it’s past. Remember this faceless quote.”The victor always writes the history.”

    • America north or south never went and got slaves,Portugal was the world wide slave Traders, after the war and the no slave law America and England gave ship owner bounties to patrol and catch slave ships to help stop the world trade(bit you didn’t know that)the only America ships to had slaves on them were rescued slaves but it was a cat and mouse game.If the slave ship saw Amer.or Eng.ships they would flee and sometimes throw chained slaves over board not to get caught!
      black history and public schools don’t teach this stuff you have to find it and read it youself

  14. Mr. Minkoff–WHERE did you get the idea Obama is black—-in the dictionary it says a person half black and half white is MULLATO.
    Quit playing Obamas race card it makes you look stupid!

  15. I am a transplanted northerner (from Montgomery County, MD one of the most liberal in the nation) that escaped with my brain intact. It is time for those of us that really want to fix the oligarchy on the Potomac to work at the state level. To expect to fix Washington in Washington is an exercise in futility. Only when the states no longer participate in the programs coming from Washington will anything change. All of the tax money comes from the states. All of the state debt is coming from Washington through unfunded mandates.

    I was at the tax day rallies and Obamacare rallies with hundreds of thousands of other responsible Americans and what did it get us? Imagine, however, what would happen if thousands of TAXPAYERS (the source of the Governor’s salary) showed up and insisted that the state government stop sending tax dollars to DC, stop participating in unfunded programs, stop supporting EPA, Dept of Education, etc, so on ad infinitum. Is Obama going to order the troops out? This is the only way change will occur and the good people of the south knew it in the 1850s. It is time for a new Confederacy to push the ascendency of states rights. A Confederacy of “We the people”

  16. I know that the “you” people that you referred to are liberals. They are the only ones I know that equate all speech to racism. As to your reference to secession, I am very much in favor of Texas (where I live) seceding from the union and becoming the Lone Star State again.

    • Texas only accepted statehood with the right to withdraw at any time. Read the state Constitution! AS a native son of the REPUBLIC OF TEXAS I learned that in first grade!

  17. My great-great grandfather,my great grand-father,thier brothers,cousins,,nephews,uncles and friends fought in the Second War of Independence.Sadly they lost.Funny,but not one of them owned a slave,or even supported slavery!If you read the REAL history of that era,you will see that thier are many parallels that lincoln and obama have.Maybe it’s time for a Third War of Independence

  18. I really like the Confederate Constitution, as much as was presented here. Especially items 3, 5 and 6; no welfare; no riders attached to bills; and no appropriations exceeding the amounts specified in legislation.

  19. “ObamaCare Wouldn’t Exist in the Confederacy” although a form of it DID exist during the Adams administration and signed by him in 1798. Socialized medicine in early America brought to you by the founding fathers.

  20. What Obama is, is a Marxist. A dedicated Marxist. He should be hung for high crimes and being an enemy of the State.

  21. I’ve always said that the saddest day in this country’s history was when the Confederacy lost its bid for independence. As a Louisiana native it would certainly be nice to have a legitimate president instead of this Kenyan piece of garbage that was voted in mainly by the left wing idiots in the northeast and west coast. And without Obama we wouldn’t have this abomination of a law he’s forced on us to steal more of our money.

  22. Are you kidding me-OBAMA , would not have lasted in the confederacy! and while we are on the subject of what he is and is not— He is not LEGAL-to be where he lays his head at night! Iknow every one is going to say berther-but it has never been laid to rest -just plainly IGNORED,especially by the damned MEDIA(of communist desent)

  23. …and the Confederate government was ignoring it’s Constitution within months of secession even more than Lincoln was ignoring that of the Union’s.

    Plenty of evidence by 1862 that the CSA Constitution was considered only paper by its own government with slave impressment, universal white conscription, tax in kind, outright confiscation of whatever government deemed needed, rationing, the military ignoring the principle of civil control, crop controls, government theft of private shipping space on blockade runners, mandating slavery in any new territories acquired no matter what the populace may want, taxes on EXPORTS etc.

    The claims of the CSA and its attendant Constitution being some sort of wonderful attempt at a better form of Republic are at best fantasy and almost always ignorant of the actual sorry history

  24. I had not read the Confederate Constitution before. Now I realize that there was a lot more good in it than I had known before. The elimination of the huge federal judiciary is something I’ve been advocating for a long time now. But the Confederate Fathers thought of it first!

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